Medicinska Fiziologija Gajton Pdf 16: A Review of the Legendary Textbook of Physiology
Medicinska Fiziologija Gajton is a textbook of physiology written by Arthur C. Guyton and John E. Hall, which has been translated into many languages and used by generations of students and doctors since 1963. The 16th edition of this book, published in 2021, is updated with the latest research and discoveries in the field of biomedical sciences.
The book covers all the major topics of human physiology, such as cellular physiology, neurophysiology, cardiovascular physiology, respiratory physiology, renal physiology, endocrine physiology, gastrointestinal physiology, reproductive physiology, and immunology. The book also includes clinical cases, review questions, and online resources to enhance the learning experience.
Medicinska Fiziologija Gajton Pdf 16 is a comprehensive and authoritative source of information for anyone who wants to learn about the functions of the human body and its interactions with the environment. The book is written in a clear and concise style, with illustrations and diagrams to facilitate understanding. The book is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing, and other health-related fields.
The extracellular fluid is also called the internal environment of the body, because it is the fluid that surrounds and interacts with the cells. The extracellular fluid consists of two major subdivisions: the plasma, which is the fluid portion of the blood, and the interstitial fluid, which fills the spaces between the cells and tissues. The plasma and the interstitial fluid are separated by the walls of the blood vessels, but they are in constant exchange of substances through diffusion, filtration, and osmosis.
The composition of the extracellular fluid is regulated by various physiological mechanisms that maintain its volume, concentration, pH, and temperature within narrow limits. The extracellular fluid provides a stable environment for the cells, allowing them to perform their specialized functions. The extracellular fluid also transports nutrients, hormones, gases, wastes, and other substances between different parts of the body.
The Systems of the Body and Their Functions
The human body is composed of several systems that work together to maintain life and health. Each system consists of a group of organs that have a common function or set of functions. The main systems of the body and their functions are:
The circulatory system: transports blood, nutrients, gases, hormones, and wastes throughout the body; regulates body temperature; protects against infections and bleeding.
The digestive system: ingests, digests, absorbs, and eliminates food; produces bile and enzymes; synthesizes vitamins.
The respiratory system: exchanges gases between the air and the blood; regulates acid-base balance; produces sound.
The urinary system: filters blood; eliminates wastes and excess water; regulates electrolyte and acid-base balance.
The skeletal system: supports and protects the body; provides attachment sites for muscles; produces blood cells; stores minerals.
The muscular system: produces movement; maintains posture; generates heat.
The nervous system: receives, processes, and integrates sensory information; controls voluntary and involuntary actions; coordinates activities of other systems.
The endocrine system: secretes hormones that regulate growth, metabolism, reproduction, stress response, and other functions.
The immune system: defends against foreign invaders; removes abnormal cells; produces antibodies.
The integumentary system: covers and protects the body; regulates body temperature; synthesizes vitamin D; detects sensations.
The reproductive system: produces gametes and sex hormones; enables fertilization, pregnancy, and childbirth.
These systems are interdependent and interact with each other through various feedback mechanisms. A disturbance in one system can affect the function of other systems. For example, a high blood sugar level can impair the function of the kidneys, nerves, blood vessels, and eyes. A low oxygen level can affect the function of the brain, heart, muscles, and other organs. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balance among all the systems of the body for optimal health and well-being. a474f39169